Nsu Sea Agreement

The NSU Sea Agreement: What It Means for the Future of Maritime Security

The NSU Sea Agreement, also known as the Non-State Actors and Small Arms in the Maritime Domain Memorandum of Understanding, was signed in February 2020 by nine countries in the Gulf of Guinea region. The agreement aims to combat piracy and armed robbery at sea by restricting the flow of small arms and light weapons to non-state actors.

Why is the NSU Sea Agreement important?

The Gulf of Guinea is one of the most dangerous regions in the world for maritime security. According to the International Maritime Bureau, there were 130 reported incidents of piracy and armed robbery in the region in 2020. These attacks not only threaten the safety of seafarers but also have a significant impact on trade and the global economy.

One of the main drivers of maritime insecurity in the Gulf of Guinea is the easy availability of small arms and light weapons to non-state actors. These groups use these weapons to carry out attacks on ships and oil platforms and to kidnap crew members for ransom.

The NSU Sea Agreement seeks to address this issue by limiting the access of non-state actors to small arms and light weapons. The countries that signed the agreement committed to sharing information and intelligence on the illegal trafficking of these weapons and to taking action to prevent their proliferation.

What are the challenges in implementing the NSU Sea Agreement?

While the NSU Sea Agreement is a positive step towards improving maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea, there are several challenges that must be overcome for it to be effective.

Firstly, the agreement relies heavily on the cooperation and coordination of the signatory countries. These countries have different levels of capacity and resources when it comes to enforcing maritime security, which could lead to uneven implementation of the agreement.

Secondly, the problem of small arms and light weapons trafficking is deeply entrenched in the region and is fueled by a range of factors, including poverty, political instability, and corruption. Addressing these underlying issues will be essential for the NSU Sea Agreement to have a lasting impact.

Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted maritime trade and has created new challenges for maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. The economic fallout of the pandemic could lead to an increase in piracy and armed robbery as desperate individuals turn to criminal activities to make a living.


The NSU Sea Agreement has the potential to make a significant contribution to improving maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. However, it is important to recognize that it is just one piece of a much larger puzzle. Addressing the root causes of maritime insecurity, building capacity for effective enforcement, and responding to new challenges such as COVID-19 will be essential for ensuring a safer and more secure future for the region`s maritime industry.